TABLE 1

Sequence alterations identified in mutator and antimutator strains

Base pair substitutionDeletionInsertion
Gene inactivatedInactivation methodaMutational targetbNumber analyzedcRate ×10−7 (fold increase)d1 bp2 bp1 bp>1 bp1 bpTyDuplicationComplex changeReference
Wild type
URA334NR (NA)88633Lee et al. 1988
URA3361.5 (NA)83836von Borstel et al. 1993
SUP4-o3542.8 (NA)820.6720.370.30.8Kang et al. 1992
SUP4-o2287.1 (NA)76.30.9112.21.75.72.2Roche et al. 1992
SUP4-o-X1991.99 (NA)87.57.50.52.51.50.5Ramachandran 1996
SUP4-o-l1911.91 (NA)84.38.91.63.70.51Ramachandran 1996
CAN1 (20°)151 (Ty)NR (NA)13.9Wilke et al. 1989
URA383 (Ty)NR (NA)96Natsoulis et al. 1989
LYS259 (Ty)NR (NA)49Natsoulis et al. 1989
CAN1242.8 (NA)65151010Tishkoff et al. 1997
Proofreading/polymerase
POL3PMSUP4-o-Y20463.5 (32)7713.78.80.5Ramachandran 1996
POL3PMSUP4-o-l199213.2 (112)85.911.13Ramachandran 1996
POL3PMURA3 LR3124 (130)64.522.612.9Morrison and Sugino 1994
POL3PMURA3 RL3620 (NR)58.336.15.6Morrison and Sugino 1994
POL2PMURA3 LR332.2 (12)90.96.13Morrison and Sugino 1994
POL2PMURA3 RL231.4 (NR)8713Morrison and Sugino 1994
MUT7PMURA3 (30°)545.8 (3.9)637.418.53.77.4von Borstel et al. 1993
MUT7PMURA3 (32°)22NR68.213.618.2von Borstel et al. 1993
MUT7PMURA3 (34°)26NR84.77.73.83.8von Borstel et al. 1993
Mismatch correction
PMS1ΔSUP4-o-Y21221.1 (10.6)58.526.914.6Ramachandran 1996
PMS1ΔSUP4-o-l21322.7 (11.9)62.424.912.7Ramachandran 1996
PMS1ΔSUP4-o21019.2 (6.9)6034.70.54.30.5Yang 1995
MLH1ΔSUP4-o6712 (5)43.249.37.5B. A. Kunz (unpublished data)
MSH2Δ 93%SUP4-o21317.3 (6.2)63.333.42.31Yang 1995
MSH2ΔCAN12040.0 (40)15805Marsischky et al. 1996
MSH2ΔCAN12029 (10)157015Tishkoff et al. 1997
MSH3 MSH6ΔCAN12236.5 (37)31.963.64.5Marsischky et al. 1996
MSH6Δ 2.3kbCAN12118 (18)8614Marsischky et al. 1996
Nucleotide excision repair
RAD1Δ 70%SUP4-o24928.3 (4)85.50.46.40.86.9Kunz et al. 1990
RAD3-1PMSUP4-o22515.5 (3.2)85.30.49.90.91.81.30.4Yang et al. 1996
RAD3-102PMSUP4-o10142.9 (23)82.28.93.03.92Montelone et al. 1992
REV3 RAD1Δ 70%SUP4-o2026.24 (0.9)72.89.42.512.82.5Roche et al. 1994
RAD6-dependent repair
RAD6Δ 0.6 kbSUP4-o20223.2 (4.9)70.320.526.20.50.5Kang et al. 1992
RAD6ΔCAN130 (Ty)7.8 (NR)53Picologlou et al. 1990
RAD6NRCAN1, URA340 (Ty)NR (NR)26Picologlou et al. 1990
RAD6ΔCAN160 (Ty)NR (NR)88Liebman and Newman 1993
RAD18Δ 1.6 kbSUP4-o21214.3 (3)93.41.90.92.80.50.5Kunz et al. 1991
RAD27ΔCAN122180 (63)18.24.568.29.1Tishkoff et al. 1997
REV3ΔSUP4-o2012.9 (0.4)73.611.412.592.5Roche et al. 1994
REV3 RAD6ΔSUP4-o20811.1 (1.6)71.611.515.91Roche et al. 1995a
REV3 RAD18ΔSUP4-o2095.7 (0.8)916.60.50.90.50.5Roche et al. 1995a
Recombinational repair
RAD52TRP1SUP4-o23714.8 (2.1)95.40.83.40.4Kunz et al. 1989
REV3 RAD52Δ, TRP1SUP4-o1912.9 (0.4)86.44.20.55.80.52.6Roche et al. 1995a
Base excision repair
APN1Δ 724 bpSUP4-o19921.7 (3.9)83.50.55.51270.5Kunz et al. 1994a
APN1 MAG1Δ, 700 bpSUP4-o673.9 (0.7)98.51.5Kunz et al. 1994a
UNG1Δ 85%SUP4-o6941 (10.8)98.51.5Impellizzeri et al. 1991
Nucleotide metabolism
DCD1Δ 0.39 kbSUP4-o2079.5 (2)88.49.20.50.51.4Kohalmi et al. 1991
  • The values shown for each mutational class are percentages of the total mutations analyzed. The mutation rate for each class can be calculated by multiplying the overall rate by the percentage.

  • a PM, point mutation A, deletion (the extent of a partial deletion is given in base pairs, kilobases, or as a percentage of the total coding sequence); TRP1, disruption with TRP1.

  • b The Y or I after SUP4-o indicates the two different orientations of the gene within the plasmid; the LR or RL after URA3 indicates the two different orientations of the gene at the same location on chromosome III [see Morrison and Sugino (1994) for details]; mutations were selected at 20°, 30°, 32°, or 34°.

  • c Ty, screening of mutations for Ty insertions only.

  • d NR, not reported; NA, not applicable.