A. | ||||||||||
Sample | Average (NPV)^{a} | T (kya)^{b} | N^{b} | Observed Var. (NPV) | ||||||
Luo | 1.337 | 52,600-526,000 | 2,674-26,740 | 0.851 | ||||||
Sardinia | 1.275 | 51,000-510,000 | 2,550-25,500 | 2.464 | ||||||
Kaingang | 0.680 | 27,440-274,400 | 1,360-13,600 | 0.361 | ||||||
Pool | 1.207 | 49,240-492,400 | 2,414-24,140 | 0.807 | ||||||
B. | ||||||||||
Predicted Var (NPV)^{c} | ||||||||||
Variable μ | ||||||||||
High variability^{d} | Moderate variability^{e} | |||||||||
Constant μ | Consant N | Rapid growth | Constant N | Rapid growth | ||||||
N | T(kya) | Constant N | Rapid growth T(kya) | |||||||
Sample | Constant N | Rapid growth | 5,000 | 10,000 | 50 | 250 | 5,000 | 10,000 | 50 | 250 |
Luo | 3.10 | 0.09 | 11.12 | 35.16 | 0.97 | 22.09 | 5.39 | 12.26 | 0.34 | 6.37 |
Sardinia | 2.85 | 0.08 | 10.87 | 34.91 | 0.96 | 22.08 | 5.14 | 12.01 | 0.33 | 6.36 |
Kaingang | 0.98 0.04 | 9.00 33.04 | 0.92 | 22.04 | 3.27 | 10.14 | 0.29 6.32 | |||
Pool | 2.59 0.08 | 10.60 34.64 | 0.96 | 22.08 | 4.88 | 11.75 | 0.33 6.36 |
↵^{a} The values presented in the Table are with the adjustments for A-linked loci described in materials and methods. The corresponding values without the adjustments used to estimate T in the rapid expansion scenario are 1.361, 1.315, 0.686, and 1.231.
↵^{b} Estimates of T and N are based on μ = 0.0005-0.00005 and generation time of 20 years. Recall that N is twice the effective number of individuals in the population.
↵^{c} The predicted variance of the normalized population variance was calculated from Equations A6 and A14 in appendix i, with T . and N estimated by Average (NPV) and η and η estimated from the mutation size distributions shown in Figure 3.
↵^{d} μ = 0.001 for 20% of the loci; μ = 0.0001 for 60% of the loci; and μ = 0.00001 for 20% of the loci.
↵^{e} μ = 0.001 for 5% of the loci; μ = 0.0001 for 90% of the loci; and μ = 0.00001 for 5% of the loci.