Normalized population variance (NPV) and its variance

SampleAverage (NPV)aT (kya)bNbObserved Var. (NPV)
Predicted Var (NPV)c
Variable μ
High variabilitydModerate variabilitye
Constant μConsant NRapid growthConstant NRapid growth
NT(kya)Constant NRapid growth T(kya)
SampleConstant NRapid growth5,00010,000502505,00010,00050250
Kaingang0.98 0.049.00 33.040.9222.043.2710.140.29 6.32
Pool2.59 0.0810.60 34.640.9622.084.8811.750.33 6.36
  • a The values presented in the Table are with the adjustments for A-linked loci described in materials and methods. The corresponding values without the adjustments used to estimate T in the rapid expansion scenario are 1.361, 1.315, 0.686, and 1.231.

  • b Estimates of T and N are based on μ = 0.0005-0.00005 and generation time of 20 years. Recall that N is twice the effective number of individuals in the population.

  • c The predicted variance of the normalized population variance was calculated from Equations A6 and A14 in appendix i, with TEmbedded Image . and NEmbedded Image estimated by Average (NPV) and η and η estimated from the mutation size distributions shown in Figure 3.

  • d μ = 0.001 for 20% of the loci; μ = 0.0001 for 60% of the loci; and μ = 0.00001 for 20% of the loci.

  • e μ = 0.001 for 5% of the loci; μ = 0.0001 for 90% of the loci; and μ = 0.00001 for 5% of the loci.