@article {Keightley1315,
author = {Keightley, P D},
title = {The distribution of mutation effects on viability in Drosophila melanogaster.},
volume = {138},
number = {4},
pages = {1315--1322},
year = {1994},
publisher = {Genetics},
abstract = {Parameters of continuous distributions of effects and rates of spontaneous mutation for relative viability in Drosophila are estimated by maximum likelihood from data of two published experiments on accumulation of mutations on protected second chromosomes. A model of equal mutant effects gives a poor fit to the data of the two experiments; higher likelihoods are obtained with leptokurtic distributions or for models in which there is more than one class of mutation effect. Minimum estimates of mutation rates (events per generation) at polygenes affecting viability on chromosome 2 are 0.14 and 0.068, but estimates are strongly confounded with other parameters in the model. Separate information on rates of molecular divergence between Drosophila species and from rates of movement of transposable elements is used to infer the overall genomic mutation rate in Drosophila, and the viability data are analyzed with mutation rate as a known parameter. If, for example, a mutation rate for chromosome 2 of 0.4 is assumed, maximum likelihood estimates of mean mutant effect on relative viability are 0.4\% and 1\%, but the majority of mutations have very much smaller effects than these values as distributions are highly leptokurtic. The methodology is applied to estimate viability effects of single P element insertional mutations. The mean effect per insertion is found to be higher, and their distribution is found to be less leptokurtic than for spontaneous mutations. The equilibrium genetic variance of viability predicted by a mutation-selection balance model with parameters estimated from the mutation accumulation experiments is similar to laboratory estimates of genetic variance of viability from natural populations of Drosophila.},
issn = {0016-6731},
URL = {https://www.genetics.org/content/138/4/1315},
eprint = {https://www.genetics.org/content/138/4/1315.full.pdf},
journal = {Genetics}
}