@article {Strobeck149,
author = {Strobeck, Curtis},
title = {Average Number of Nucleotide Differences in a Sample From a Single Subpopulation: A Test for Population Subdivision},
volume = {117},
number = {1},
pages = {149--153},
year = {1987},
publisher = {Genetics},
abstract = {Unbiased estimates of θ = 4N{\textmu} in a random mating population can be based on either the number of alleles or the average number of nucleotide differences in a sample. However, if there is population structure and the sample is drawn from a single subpopulation, these two estimates of θ behave differently. The expected number of alleles in a sample is an increasing function of the migration rates, whereas the expected average number of nucleotide differences is shown to be independent of the migration rates and equal to 4NT{\textmu} for a general model of population structure which includes both the island model and the circular stepping-stone model. This contrast in the behavior of these two estimates of θ is used as the basis of a test for population subdivision. Using a Monte-Carlo simulation developed so that independent samples from a single subpopulation could be obtained quickly, this test is shown to be a useful method to determine if there is population subdivision.},
issn = {0016-6731},
URL = {https://www.genetics.org/content/117/1/149},
eprint = {https://www.genetics.org/content/117/1/149.full.pdf},
journal = {Genetics}
}