Table 3 Comparison of vigor in a relatively cool greenhouse
TraitHybrid cooler greenhouseFFMM-A cooler greenhouseFFMM-B cooler greenhouse
Total plant height92.1 ± 6.2 cm72.0 ± 4.5 cm***83.1 ± 5.9 cm**
Ear leaf length71.7 ± 4.6 cm60.2 ± 3.6 cm***68.0 ± 2.6 cm*
Ear leaf width39.2 ± 5.3 mm30.6 ± 1.8 mm***43.1 ± 4.1 mma
Number of kernels on primary ear157.6 ± 27.4 kernels94.6 ± 25.6 kernels***108.2 ± 27.8 kernels***
Total dry seed weight of primary ear16.6 ± 3.8 g9.1 ± 2.5 g***10.3 ± 2.5 g***
Primary ear length8.8 ± 0.9 cm6.7 ± 0.8 cm***7.8 ± 0.7 cm*
Number of tassel branchesb4 branches3 branches8 branchesa
Days from planting to anther emergenceb37 days38 days39 days**
Days from planting to silkingb35.5 days38 days41 days**
  • Comparison of both FFMM-A and FFMM-B parents to an F1 hybrid from a cross of the two lines. All significance levels are denoted after the value for each parent. Significance levels are only assigned if the value of the trait in the parental line is considered less vigorous than the hybrid. The first six trait values are given as a mean ± SD, while the last three trait values are the median value. *, **, and *** represent significance values of 0.05, 0.01, and 0.001, respectively.

  • a Value significantly greater than hybrid.

  • b Median value is given; a K-sample median test was used to analyze significance of interaction instead of two-way ANOVA.