Table 2 Terminology for describing drug, placebo, and drug-response phenotypes using open field activity (OFA) as an example
Type of outcomePlacebo-treated mouse iDrug-treated mouse i
Pretreatment (baseline)Embedded ImageEmbedded Image
Post-treatmentEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
Gain scoreEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
Drug response (treatment effect)Embedded ImageEmbedded Image
  • Starred quantities in the bottom row are unobserved “counterfactuals”, or “potential outcomes”, required to define the treatment effect.