Table 1 Estimated Type I Error Rate and Statistical Power
Type I error rateStatistical power
DistraMethodbα = 0.10α = 0.05α = 0.01α = 0.10α = 0.05α = 0.01
ExpPermut0.191***0.113***0.028***0.4930.3870.235
Bootstr0.145***0.078***0.022***0.4510.3600.235
GeneDr0.1080.0450.0090.4020.3120.164
GRAIP0.116*0.0520.0120.4160.3150.164
NormPermut0.129***0.0590.0120.4780.3790.241
Bootstr0.0900.0480.0070.4090.3430.223
GeneDr0.0900.0510.0100.4160.3550.239
GRAIP0.086*0.0440.0100.4180.3420.217
UnifPermut0.136***0.079***0.0140.4880.3970.241
Bootstr0.1040.0570.0110.4350.3520.219
GeneDr0.1040.062*0.0110.4290.3510.220
GRAIP0.1050.0600.0110.4300.3520.246
  • Allele (A/a) frequencies at the founder generation: 3/1 for F26 vs. 1/3 for F34. Estimated from 1200 simulations at genome-wide significance level α = 0.10, 0.05 or 0.01. *, **, and *** indicate that the estimated type I error rate is significantly different from the expected significance levels 0.10, 0.05, and 0.01, respectively.

  • a Residual distribution: exponential (Exp), normal (Norm), or uniform (Unif).

  • b Permuting marker data (Permut), bootstrapping phenotypic data (Bootstr), or gene dropping (GeneDr).