TABLE 2

Putative QTL positions, effect magnitudes, and modes of gene action for 13 traits using composite interval mapping in an F2 population derived from a cross between a primitive sunflower domesticate (the Hopi landrace) and its wild progenitor (H. annuus var. annuus)

TraitLinkage groupaPositionbNearest markerOne-LOD intervalcAdditive effectdDominance ratioePVEfPreviously identified?g
Days to flower657.6ORS48353.6–57.74.6−0.237.6Yes
71.0ORS10410–5.3−2.6−0.112.5Yes
1557.1ORS68757–58.210.4−0.4946.9No
Stem diameter17.0HT10184.6–10.41.20.7210.0Yes
21.7ORS9250–15.00.7−0.033.0No
33.4ORS6650–9.91.1−0.336.5Yes
843.8HT66837.8–46.81.30.848.0No
1556.4ORS114152.4–58.21.70.1615.7No
Height18.0ORS7164.6–10.029.60.4511.9No
657.6ORS48347.6–57.723.10.016.4Yes
910.0ORS12652.0–19.015.70.563.0No
1416.1HT31910.1–18.011.51.193.0No
1557.1ORS68757.0–58.253.2−0.3139.4No
No. main stem leaves657.6ORS48355.6–57.72.70.094.9Yes
71.0ORS10410–7.3−1.80.312.7Yes
919.0HT29413.0–39.82.6−0.235.3Yes
1557.1ORS68757.1–58.28.0−0.4957.0No
Leaf size531.6ORS85221.6–44.564.8−0.719.1Unknown
835.6ORS116132.4–35.856.4−0.145.6No
1015.8ORS4377.8–18.946.70.644.4No
1410.1ORS3073.1–18.036.41.344.9No
1557.0ORS114150.5–58.242.20.973.7No
1645.4ORS40737.4–60.1−31.6−1.965.1No
No. branches1017.1ORS4379.8–24.8−1.30.264.6No
130HT8480–17.6−1.4−0.15.2No
1630.1ORS89922.0–36.1−1.3−0.877.0No
1722.0ORS73516.0–30.1−0.211.478.4No
No. heads641.1ORS122922.8–53.60.8−0.433.1No
829.5ORS14719.5–35.2−1.3−0.065.9No
1015.8ORS43711.8–18.9−2.40.5928.1No
13a0HT8480–2.0−1.2−0.25.3No
13b15.6ORS3175.6–27.6−1.30.036.5No
1634.1ORS99328.1–45.4−0.5−2.193.4No
1724.8ORS73514.0–32.8−0.42.313.4Yes
Disc diameter114.4HT390–18.32.70.674.4No
653.6ORS38145.6–57.72.3−1.094.9No
835.2ORS45632.4–45.84.10.239.0No
917.0ORS12658.0–22.53.80.167.7No
1013.8ORS4377.8–17.14.40.7413No
1412.1ORS3070–18.02.80.75.6No
1550.5ORS735.1–57.12.01.614.3No
174.0ORS5650–10.03.8−0.145.5No
No. ray flowers519.6ORS5058.5–29.61.9−0.26.7No
832.4ORS14723.5–41.80.81.773.1No
1013.8ORS5344.0–22.91.40.043.6No
1272.3HT46665.7–72.81.90.284.3No
1557.1ORS68748.5–58.22.80.2313.1No
1726.8ORS73510.0–33.71.20.924.6No
No. selfed seeds114.4HT398.0–30.348.7−0.56.6No
815.5ZVG346.2–29.544.20.695.4No
1272.3HT46665.7–72.860.40.066.8No
1718.0ORS73510.0–33.737.31.087.2Yes
Achene weight16.6HT10182.0–18.31.60.708.6No
835.2ORS45619.5–35.81.707.6No
919.0HT2946.0–35.81.30.374.2Yes
1015.8ORS4379.8–18.92.60.3619.0Yes
Shatteringg4a0HT2980–4.0−0.10.2610.7n/a
4b33.4ORS67432.6–41.40.10.046.4n/a
1015.8ORS4377.8–20.1−0.10.389.0n/a
Seed germination1272.3HT46671.4–72.8−10.0−1.3117.3n/a
1557.1ORS68748.5–58.2−20.30.1617.8n/a
  • a When multiple QTL for a single trait occurred on the same linkage group, a letter was used to uniquely identify them.

  • b Absolute position from the top of the linkage group (in centimorgans).

  • c Refers to the region flanking each QTL peak in which the LOD score declines by one.

  • d Refers to the additive effect (a) of the Hopi allele. Underlined values indicate instances in which the allelic effects are in the wrong direction. See text for details.

  • e Refers to the dominance ratio (d/a) of the Hopi allele.

  • f Percentage of phenotypic variation explained by each QTL using CIM. PVE values for QTL with effects in the direction of the wild phenotype are underlined.

  • g Indicates whether or not a given QTL was detected in the previous cultivated × wild sunflower QTL analysis (Burke et al. 2002). The determination of overlap between studies was based on the one-LOD confidence intervals. Note that the previous analysis of shattering was based on a different (indirect) measure and that seed germination has not been previously analyzed.