Total^{e} | Baltico–Nordic domain^{e} | Alpine domain^{e} | |||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Mean π^{a} | Mean D | Mean H | Mean π | Mean D | Mean H | Mean π | Mean D | Mean H | |

Observed | 1.47 | −0.88 [0.38] | −0.74 [3.84] | 1.53 | −0.55 [1.00] | −0.27 [3.28] | 1.59 | −0.66 [0.45] | −0.26 [1.45] |

Model | |||||||||

SNM^{b} | 1.47 | −0.02 (<10^{−4}) | −0.000 (0.015) | 1.53 | −0.03 (0.005) | −0.00 (0.180) | 1.59 | −0.03 (0.001) | −0.00 (0.209) |

Growth^{c} | 1.47 | −0.80 (0.337) | 0.68 (<10^{−4}) | 1.54 | −0.82 (0.955) | 0.73 (0.000) | 1.59 | −0.80 (0.815) | 0.76 (0.000) |

Bottleneck^{d} | 1.45 | −0.28 (0.079) | −1.75 (0.693) | 1.53 | −0.31 (0.304) | −1.81 (0.901) | 1.59 | −0.29 (0.233) | −1.96 (0.860) |

*P*-values for the observed means under the model simulated are given in parentheses. The numbers within brackets are the variances across loci of the parameters.↵

*a*Average π per locus across loci (the average number of sites surveyed is 719 bp), mean Tajima's*D*across loci, and mean Fay and Wu's*H*across loci.↵

*b*Standard neutral model.↵

*c*The growth rate was*G*= 10. θ = 4.78.↵

*d*We assumed a population shrinking at rate 10 up to time*t*_{1}= 0.003 × 4*N*_{e}before present (this represents population growth in the forward direction), then going through a bottleneck of severity*f*= 0.0005 until*t*_{2}= 0.0035 × 4*N*_{e}, and then having an ancestral population the same size as the current population. Assuming that*N*_{e}= 500,000 and a generation time of 25 years,*t*_{1}= 150,000. If we assume*N*_{e}= 10^{6},*t*_{1}= 300,000. In the first scenario the bottleneck would last 25,000 years. θ = 10.03.↵

*e*The analysis was based on 21 loci in the total data set and the Baltico–Nordic domain and 19 loci in the Alpine domain as*phynrII*and*phyP2*were monomorphic in the latter.