TABLE 4

The rate of nonsynonymous/synonymous changes in relation to continental geography and haplo-group diversity

CladeGeographyDiversity (ρ)aMNMSMN/ MSSD
L1cWest and Central Africa12.725650.38
L0dSouth Africa9.115420.36
M7Southeast Asia7.38210.38
M8(CZ)Northeast Asia6.712310.39
UEurope6.6401110.36
“Old” haplogroups>60.370.01
KEurope2.610230.43
CNortheast Asia2.68130.62
D1Native American2.55160.31
L1b1West Africa2.210110.91
L2a1West Africa1.814160.88
H1Europe1.211190.58
“Young” haplogroups<30.620.24
  • a Average number of synonymous substitutions to the ancestral sequence of the haplogroup. One or two of the most frequent haplogroups for (a) Africa, (b) Europe, (c) East Asia, and Native Americans are displayed for the upper and lower range of sequence diversity. Using the average mutation rate of synonymous transitions, the threshold of six synonymous transitions for the “older” haplogroups indicates coalescent times of the haplogroups >40 thousand years, while the threshold of fewer than synonymous transitions for the “younger” haplogroups indicates <20 thousand years of divergence.