RT Journal Article
SR Electronic
T1 Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci in F_{2} Incorporating Phenotypes of F_{3} Progeny
JF Genetics
JO Genetics
FD Genetics Society of America
SP 1981
OP 1993
DO 10.1534/genetics.166.4.1981
VO 166
IS 4
A1 Zhang, Yuan-Ming
A1 Xu, Shizhong
YR 2004
UL http://www.genetics.org/content/166/4/1981.abstract
AB In plants and laboratory animals, QTL mapping is commonly performed using F2 or BC individuals derived from the cross of two inbred lines. Typical QTL mapping statistics assume that each F2 individual is genotyped for the markers and phenotyped for the trait. For plant traits with low heritability, it has been suggested to use the average phenotypic values of F3 progeny derived from selfing F2 plants in place of the F2 phenotype itself. All F3 progeny derived from the same F2 plant belong to the same F2:3 family, denoted by F2:3. If the size of each F2:3 family (the number of F3 progeny) is sufficiently large, the average value of the family will represent the genotypic value of the F2 plant, and thus the power of QTL mapping may be significantly increased. The strategy of using F2 marker genotypes and F3 average phenotypes for QTL mapping in plants is quite similar to the daughter design of QTL mapping in dairy cattle. We study the fundamental principle of the plant version of the daughter design and develop a new statistical method to map QTL under this F2:3 strategy. We also propose to combine both the F2 phenotypes and the F2:3 average phenotypes to further increase the power of QTL mapping. The statistical method developed in this study differs from published ones in that the new method fully takes advantage of the mixture distribution for F2:3 families of heterozygous F2 plants. Incorporation of this new information has significantly increased the statistical power of QTL detection relative to the classical F2 design, even if only a single F3 progeny is collected from each F2:3 family. The mixture model is developed on the basis of a single-QTL model and implemented via the EM algorithm. Substantial computer simulation was conducted to demonstrate the improved efficiency of the mixture model. Extension of the mixture model to multiple QTL analysis is developed using a Bayesian approach. The computer program performing the Bayesian analysis of the simulated data is available to users for real data analysis.