In many case-control designs of genome-wide association (GWAS) or next generation sequencing (NGS) studies, extensive data on secondary traits that may correlate and share the common genetic variants with the primary disease are available. Investigating these secondary traits can provide critical insights into the disease etiology or pathology, and enhance the GWAS or NGS results. Methods based on logistic regression (LG) were developed for this purpose. However, for the identification of rare variants (RVs), certain inadequacies in the LG models and algorithmic instability can cause severely inflated type I error, and significant loss of power, when the two traits are correlated and the RV is associated with the disease, especially at stringent significance levels. To address this issue, we propose a novel set-valued (SV) method that models a binary trait by dichotomization of an underlying continuous variable, and incorporate this into the genetic association model as a critical component. Extensive simulations and an analysis of seven secondary traits in a GWAS of benign ethnic neutropenia show that the SV method consistently controls type I error well at stringent significance levels, has larger power than the LG-based methods, and is robust in performance to effect pattern of the genetic variant (risk or protective), rare or common variants, rare or common diseases, and trait distributions. Because of the SV method’s striking and profound advantage, we strongly recommend the SV method be employed instead of the LG-based methods for secondary traits analyses in case-control sequencing studies.
- Received June 6, 2016.
- Accepted December 29, 2016.
- Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America