**Files in this data supplement:**

- Supporting Information: Figures S1-S3 and Tables S1-S4 (PDF, 571 KB)
- Figure S1: Comparison of the true LRS distribution to the
*x*^{2} distribution with 1 df. (PDF, 431 KB)
- Figure S2: Bias in the maximum-likelihood estimate of population size under neutrality. (PDF, 320 KB)
- Figure S3: Distributions of various test statistics under the neutral null hypothesis, when allele frequencies are sampled with noise.
(PDF, 346 KB)
- Table S1: Deviation of the distribution of LRS from the
*x*^{2} distribution for different initial allele frequencies. (PDF, 332 KB)
- Table S2: Mutant allele frequencies in yeast data from Lang et al, 2013 and the application of ELRT and FIT. (PDF, 311 KB)
- Table S3: Results of FIT applied to data from yeast populations evolved at different population sizes (.xlsx, 164 KB)
- Table S4: Raw flow cytometry counts for yeast populations evolved at different population sizes (.xlsx, 161 KB)