Heritable Gene Knockout in Caenorhabditis elegans by Direct Injection of Cas9–sgRNA Ribonucleoproteins
Seung Woo Cho, Jihyun Lee, Dana Carroll, Jin-Soo Kim, Junho Lee


We present a novel method of targeted gene disruption that involves direct injection of recombinant Cas9 protein complexed with guide RNA into the gonad of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Biallelic mutants were recovered among the F1 progeny, demonstrating the high efficiency of this method.

  • Received July 28, 2013.
  • Accepted August 16, 2013.

Available freely online through the author-supported open access option.

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