Genomic Variation in Natural Populations of Drosophila melanogaster
Charles H. Langley, Kristian Stevens, Charis Cardeno, Yuh Chwen G. Lee, Daniel R. Schrider, John E. Pool, Sasha A. Langley, Charlyn Suarez, Russell B. Corbett-Detig, Bryan Kolaczkowski, Shu Fang, Phillip M. Nista, Alisha K. Holloway, Andrew D. Kern, Colin N. Dewey, Yun S. Song, Matthew W. Hahn, David J. Begun

Abstract

This report of independent genome sequences of two natural populations of Drosophila melanogaster (37 from North America and 6 from Africa) provides unique insight into forces shaping genomic polymorphism and divergence. Evidence of interactions between natural selection and genetic linkage is abundant not only in centromere- and telomere-proximal regions, but also throughout the euchromatic arms. Linkage disequilibrium, which decays within 1 kbp, exhibits a strong bias toward coupling of the more frequent alleles and provides a high-resolution map of recombination rate. The juxtaposition of population genetics statistics in small genomic windows with gene structures and chromatin states yields a rich, high-resolution annotation, including the following: (1) 5′- and 3′-UTRs are enriched for regions of reduced polymorphism relative to lineage-specific divergence; (2) exons overlap with windows of excess relative polymorphism; (3) epigenetic marks associated with active transcription initiation sites overlap with regions of reduced relative polymorphism and relatively reduced estimates of the rate of recombination; (4) the rate of adaptive nonsynonymous fixation increases with the rate of crossing over per base pair; and (5) both duplications and deletions are enriched near origins of replication and their density correlates negatively with the rate of crossing over. Available demographic models of X and autosome descent cannot account for the increased divergence on the X and loss of diversity associated with the out-of-Africa migration. Comparison of the variation among these genomes to variation among genomes from D. simulans suggests that many targets of directional selection are shared between these species.

  • Received December 22, 2011.
  • Accepted May 24, 2012.
View Full Text