Ty element-induced temperature-sensitive mutations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
K Kawakami, B K Shafer, D J Garfinkel, J N Strathern, Y Nakamura


Temperature-sensitive mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated by insertional mutagenesis using the HIS3 marked retrotransposon TyH3HIS3. In such mutants, the TyHIS3 insertions are expected to identify loci which encode genes essential for cell growth at high temperatures but dispensable at low temperatures. Five mutations were isolated and named hit for high temperature growth. The hit1-1 mutation was located on chromosome X and conferred the pet phenotype. Two hit2 mutations, hit2-1 and hit2-2, were located on chromosome III and caused the deletion of the PET18 locus which has been shown to encode a gene required for growth at high temperatures. The hit3-1 mutation was located on chromosome VI and affected the CDC26 gene. The hit4-1 mutation was located on chromosome XIII. These hit mutations were analyzed in an attempt to identify novel genes involved in the heat shock response. The hit1-1 mutation caused a defect in synthesis of a 74-kD heat shock protein. Western blot analysis revealed that the heat shock protein corresponded to the SSC1 protein, a member of the yeast hsp70 family. In the hit1-1 mutant, the TyHIS3 insertion caused a deletion of a 3-kb DNA segment between the delta 1 and delta 4 sequences near the SUP4 locus. The 1031-bp wild-type HIT1 DNA which contained an open reading frame encoding a protein of 164 amino acids and the AGG arginine tRNA gene complemented all hit1-1 mutant phenotypes, indicating that the mutant phenotypes were caused by the deletion of these genes. The pleiotropy of the HIT1 locus was analyzed by constructing a disruption mutation of each gene in vitro and transplacing it to the chromosome. This analysis revealed that the HIT1 gene essential for growth at high temperatures encodes the 164-amino acid protein. The arginine tRNA gene, named HSX1, is essential for growth on a nonfermentable carbon source at high temperatures and for synthesis of the SSC1 heat shock protein.